Writing and Rhetoric Book 5: Refutation & Confirmation

By: Paul Kortepeter



A one-semester course for grades 5 or 6 and up

Think of the progymnasmata as a step-by-step apprenticeship in the art of writing and rhetoric. In the Writing & Rhetoric series, author Paul Kortepeter has recovered this proven method of teaching writing in conjunction with critical thinking and speaking. Writing & Rhetoric: Refutation & Confirmationprovides students with forms and models of excellent writing that they will imitate as they progress down the path to masterful writing.
This is the fifth in a series of twelve books that will train students over six years.

Refutation & Confirmation

A refutation is a short essay that attacks certain parts of a narrative. In this book, students will learn to identify and refute, or criticize, parts of a narrative that are unbelievable, improbable, unclear, or improper. A confirmation is a short essay that defends certain parts of a narrative. When students see parts of a narrative that are believable, probable, clear, or proper, they will confirm them. After learning to identify the parts of a story that can be attacked or defended, students will practice writing refutations or confirmations using sound arguments to explain their opinions.

Be assured that this exercise of refutation and confirmation is not about taking the magic out of stories. On the contrary, it is designed to help students love truly good stories even more because they will think about them more deeply. As students practice refutation and confirmation in this book, they will not only learn to form arguments and express their opinions, but also to find delight in the stories they read.

Students will learn to:

  • Write four-paragraph essays
  • Outline
  • Refute or confirm parts of stories
  • Understand comparison and contrast
  • Introduce and conclude an essay
  • Use narrative to further the purpose of exposition
  • Use direct quotes to support an argument
  • Deliver writing orally
  • Revise writing

For placement recommendations and other questions, please see FAQ page.

Suggested Schedule (PDF)

Read more about The Method, Philosophy, and the Progymnasmata

Live Online Course Available Here!

Product Description

Companion Products:

Writing and Rhetoric Book 5 Refutation & Confirmation (Teacher’s Edition)

Writing and Rhetoric Book 5: Refutation & Confirmation

Additional Information

Weight 1 kg
Dimensions 8.5 × 11 × 1 in



Paul Kortepeter


Classical Academic Press




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